Mariupol or, sometimes, Mariupolis (Ukrainian: Маріуполь, pronounced [mariˈupʌlʲ]; Russian: Мариу́поль; Greek: Μαριούπολη), formerly known as Zhdanov (Ukrainian and Russian: Жда́нов), is a port city in southeastern Ukraine. It is located on the coast of the Azov Sea, at the mouth of the Kalmius River. Mariupol is the largest city in Priazovye - a geographical region around Azov Sea, divided by Russia and Ukraine - and is also a popular sea resort. Administratively, the city is located in the Donetsk oblast and historically formed a part of the broader Donbas region. As of March 1, 2009, the city population stood at 493,245 people.
Mariupol is an important industrial center and seaport. Two of its steel mills - Ilyich Iron and Steel Works and Azovstal - are among the largest in the country and make up a significant part of Ukraine's total exports. «Azovmash», a machine-building concern, located in Mariupol, is the largest company of its kind in Ukraine. Overall, Mariupol industry accounts for 37.5% of Donetsk oblast’s total exports and about 7.0% of all Ukraine’s exports.
From 1948 to 1989 the city was named Zhdanov in honor of Andrei Zhdanov and has historically had a relatively large Greek minority.
Mariupol is to the south of the Donetsk area, on the coast of the Azov Sea, in a mouth of the river Kalmius. The city occupies an area of 166.0 km (103.1 mi) ² (64 mi²) (with suburbs, i.e. the territories subordinated to the Mariupol city council – 244.0 km (151.6 mi) ² (94.2 mi²)). The down-town area is 106.0 km (65.9 mi) ² (40.9 mi²), the area of parks and gardens is 80.6 km (50.1 mi) ² (31.1 mi²). The city is mainly built on land that is made of Solonetzic chernozems, with a significant amount of underground subsoil waters that frequently leads to landslides.
Mariupol was known from the beginning of the 16th century as the Cossack fortress Kalmius, but only became a real city after the migration of the Crimean Greeks to Priazovye from 1778 - 1780. It became the first city in Donetsk Oblast to receive city status in 1779. The railway, a new big port, and a metal works appeared at the end of the 19th century. The city has undergone much industrialization, such as the appearance of a large "Azovstal" plant. Mariupol was occupied by the Germans from (1941 - 1943). Now it is a major center of industry in the Donetsk Oblast, but also a resort destination. It is recognized as the center of Greek culture in the Ukraine.
Old Mariupol (an area limited to the south coast of the Sea of Azov, in the east - Kalmius River, in the north - Shevchenko Blvd., in the West – Metalurhiv Av.) is built up mainly of few-story houses and has kept its pre-revolutionary architecture. Only Artem Street and Lenin Avenue were built after the Great Patriotic War and are considered modern buildings.
The central area of Mariupol (from the Metalurhiv Avenue up to Budivelnykiv Avenue) is almost entirely administrative and commercial buildings, including a city council building, post office, the Lukov cinema, Mariupol Humanitarian University, Priazov State Technical University, the Korolenko central city library, and many large shops.
Architecture of other residential areas ("Zakhidny", "Skhidny", "Kirov", "Cheremushky", 5-th, 17-th catchment area etc.) are not especially different or original and are typically 5 and 9-storied houses. Cheremushki carries a special meaning in Russian culture and now entwined with Ukrainian. It usually refers to the newly settled parts of a city in Russia.
The accommodation of the city is 9.82 million meters square the common area. Security of the inhabited parts of the city is 19.3 meters square per 1 inhabitant. Densities of privatized habitation in 2003 were 76.3 %
* City Square (« the Theatrical Square »),
* Extreme Park (new attractions near to the biggest in city of the Palace of Culture of Metallurgists),
* Gurov's Meadow-park (former Meadow-park a name of the 200-anniversary of Mariupol),
* City Garden (Russian: Горсад, «Children's Central Public Garden»),
* Veselka Park (Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion), named as the rainbow
* Azovstal Park (Ordzhonikidzivsky Raion),
* Petrovsky Park (near modern stadium “Illyichivets” and constructions of “Azovmash” basketball club, Illyichivsky Raion),
* Primorsky Park (Prymorsky Raion).
* Donetsk regional Russian drama theatre. In 2003 the oldest theater of region has celebrated the 125-anniversary. The talented collective of actors among which 2 folk and the 2 honoured artists of Ukraine work in a theater. For contribution to spiritual education of theatre in 2000 became the laureate of the competition «Gold Scythian».
* Theatre of dolls (it is created in 1999)
Palaces of Culture (Recreation centres) (together with so-called clubs - 16 units):
* Metallurgov (“Metallurgists”) of Ilyich Steel & Iron Works
* Azovstal of Azovstal Steel & Iron Works
* Iskra (“Spark”) of Azovmash machine-builder Concern
* MarKokhim (Mariupol Coke Chemistry)
* Moryakov (“Sailors”)
* Stroitel (“Builders”)
* Palace of child's and youth art (“Palace of Children art”)
* Municipal Palace of Culture
Showrooms & museums:
* Mariupol Museum of Regional
* Kuindzhi Art Exhibition
* Museum of ethnography (in the past the museum of Andrey Zhdanov)
* Museum of Literary
* Museum halls of the industrial enterprises and their divisions, establishments and the organizations of city and so on.
Libraries (only 35 units):
* Korolenko Central Library;
* Gorky Central Children’s Library;
* Serafimovich Library (The oldest library of city);
* And also: Gaydar Library, Honchar Library, Hrushevsky Library, Krupskaya Library, Kuprin Library, Lesya Ukrainka Library, Marshak Library, Morozov Library, Novikov-Priboy Library, Pushkin Library, Svetlov Library, Turgenev Library, Franko Library, Chekhov Library, Chukovsky Library, the libraries of industrial enterprises, establishments and the organizations of city.
In the environs of city on the shore of Sea of Azov the monument of archaeology is opened neolithic burial ground of end of the third millennium AD. During excavations here it is discovered over 120 skeletons. Near them stone and bone instruments and beads are found, shell-works the shellfishes, teeth of animal.
* 11 churches of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchy.
* 3 churches of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchy.
* 52 various religious communities.
A city is decorated by the St. Nicol Cathedral (in Zhovtnevy borough) and churches of city:
* St. Nicolas (Primorsky borough)
* St. Michael (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
* St. Preobrazheniye (“Transfiguration”) (Primorsky borough)
* St. Ilya (Ilyichevsky borough)
* St. Uspensky (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
* St. Vladimir (Ordzhonikidzevsky borough)
* St. Amvrosy Optinsky (Illyichevsky borough, Volonterobvka)
* St. Varlampy (Illyichevsky borough, Mirny)
* St. George (Illyichevsky borough, Sartana)
* Nativity of the Virgin Mary (Illyichevsky borough, Talakovka)
* St. Boris & Gleb (Prymorsky borough, Moryakov)
* St. Crimeajewel